"New genes go into nature"
GMO corn is grown in places where no wild corn grows.
Genes in GMO crops can spread to wild plants, but the precautions taken make this unlikely. The crops are planted in places where they cannot pollinate wild relatives.
For example, genes of GMO maize in Europe cannot spread in nature because maize does not grow in the wild. GMO organisms are also made dependent on substances that do not occur in nature.
It once seemed that a gene that makes wild plants resistant to weed killers originated from GMO crops, but later it was found in a dried grass plant from 1888, so it occurs naturally.
"GMO plants require more weed control"
The crops of the future fight the weeds themselves.
Some GMO crops are less sensitive to poison, so the farmer can spray more poison to keep out weeds or vermin.
But in the end that doesn't work well, because weeds and vermin become resistant to poison if they are sprayed on a large scale.
That is why these plants are leaving, and new GMO crops that can keep out weeds and vermin are the future. Because the farmer saves money if he does not have to spray, this technology will win.
Yes and no
"Companies get a patent on plants"
Old GMO patents are released for small-scale agriculture.
The first gene-modified crops were developed by groups that earned a lot from the patents. Thanks to new gene technology, smaller labs can now also develop GMOs.
Old patents, such as the eggplant Bt brinjal, have been released to small farms. The plant produces a poison that keeps insects away. The farmer does not have to buy insecticides, which used to be 40 percent of the profit.
Yes and no
"Modified food leads to allergy"
Gene technology can remove allergy-causing substances.
With new organisms, allergens often arise: substances that can cause allergic reactions.
That is why GMO products are tested more thoroughly than regular crops, and in the US, where genetic modification is most common, it takes an average of 13 years to develop and approve a GMO food.
As long as the products are on the market, no allergies or other harmful effects are documented. Gene technology makes it possible to remove allergens from the DNA of a plant, and scientists are currently making gluten-free wheat.
"GMO kills your gut flora"
GMO products are indistinguishable from other foods.
Everything we eat influences the intestinal flora. But even the most sensitive test methods cannot determine whether meat, milk or eggs come from animals that have just eaten food or genetically modified food.
GMO products are therefore indistinguishable from normal food, so the chance that they do something different with our intestinal flora is very small.
"Gene modification is new and unknown"
Humans have been breeding plants and animals for thousands of years.
The difference between the bananas we eat and the original form is huge. Just like grains and cattle, they are the result of thousands of years of breeding, in which the specimens have been grown with the desired genes.
The difference between breeding and gene processing is in the precision and speed. Where the results were previously random and generations lasted, researchers can now determine what they change.
In nature, genetic modification takes place all the time when species exchange genes. For example, most invertebrates have genes of bacteria in their DNA.